The grants will investigate improving yields of switch grass investigating cultivation of alternative cellulose-yielding plants including millet and non-food legumes.  Most of the recipient institutes are capable of conducting genomic research which will be pivotal to an understanding of cultivation of feedstock for ethanol production which does not impact existing needs for animal and human foods.

The energy efficiency and renewable energy program of the US Department of Energy is involved in the development of application of alternatives to conventional fossil fuels including cellulosic ethanol, solar, wind, geothermal, and tidal power which are regarded as substainable energy sources reducing dependents on imported oil and reducing the evolution of greenhouse gases.