US beef, dairy farmers must guard against mycotoxins
Warm, wet weather puts this year’s corn and wheat crops at risk for mycotoxins
The U.S. is expecting a large corn crop, projected as high as 15.09 billion bushels, and the 2016 wheat crop yields have been at or near record levels in several wheat classes. However, Alltech mycotoxin expert Dr. Max Hawkins has a warning: Quantity should not distract producers from being vigilant regarding quality and the potential for mycotoxin risk.
Hawkins noted the spring wheat harvest across the northern Great Plains experienced wet weather, which led to increased crop stress and fusarium head blight. Likewise, much of the U.S. Corn Belt experienced above average temperatures and moisture through August, creating the right environment for mold and subsequent mycotoxin issues.
Alltech recently collected more than 100 TMR samples from the U.S. and analyzed them through the ISO/ IEC 17025:2005 accredited Alltech 37+ mycotoxin analytical services laboratory, using LCMS/ MS technology to determine mycotoxin presence and growth through the storage months. The 37+ analysis tests for over 37 individual mycotoxins in a given sample and shows the risk that mycotoxins in stored crops can pose to herd health and performance.
Of the samples, nearly 18 percent contained 6-7 mycotoxins, 42 percent had 4-5 mycotoxins, 35 percent had 2-3 mycotoxins, and less than 2 percent had either one mycotoxin or none. Of the mycotoxins present, type B trichothecenes and fusaric acid were most prevalent in 83 percent and 92 percent of the samples respectively.
The toxicity of fusaric acid is significantly enhanced when feed is co-contaminated with type B trichothecene or DON. Together, the mycotoxins present in the sample group have a REQ, or risk equivalent quantity, of 187 for beef cattle and 211 for dairy cows. For the dairy cows, this level of risk could represent a 0.5-liter loss in milk production per cow per day.
Symptoms in a herd dealing with type B trichothecenes and fusaric acid might include:
- Diarrhea and other digestive disorders
- Udder edema
- Enlarged mammary glands
- Feed refusal
- Increased somatic cell count
- Increased mortality
- Liver damage
- Malformation of the embryo
- Poor antioxidant status
- Reduced milk production, feed efficiency, feed intake, growth, immunity, reproductive performance and rumen function
- Skin lesions
“Even with a huge crop awaiting, quantity does not indicate quality,” Hawkins said. “Producers should be proactive in investigating and identifying potential issues that can impact herd performance and health.”