News and analysis for the global poultry industry.

Zoe Kay

Zoe Kay is an independent consultant providing technical services to the animal health and nutrition industry. She can be reached at


solutions to keep pigs healthy

6 most common pig diseases worldwide

Symptoms, treatments, preventative measures for the six most common diseases in pre-weaning, post-weaning and breeding
Symptoms, treatments and preventative measures for the six most common diseases in pre-weaning, post-weaning and in breeding animals worldwide
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5 regulatory considerations for EU feed manufacturers

To address public health and environmental concerns, agriculture is being asked to remove or reduce the use of established solutions.
New feed-related regulations put an emphasis on gut health to maintain animal performance and health, potentially without the use of trusted additive solutions.
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Nutritional strategies for piglet diets without zinc oxide

While there is no direct replacement, promotion of gut health and immunity helps prevent diarrhea.
The pig industry is facing the challenge of production without zinc oxide. Therefore, strategies need to be found to prevent diarrhea and optimize growth, in order to protect producers' bottom line. Ingredients, diet formulation and additives can be used to support gut health and immunity, to naturally help prevent diarrhea at weaning.
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Gut health

How gut health affects animal performance in ABF production

Maintaining a balanced and effective microbiome is essential for health.
The challenge of antibiotic-free production makes gut health even more important for animal performance. Maintaining a balanced and effective microbiome is essential for health. The relationship between it and the host is complex but there are novel opportunities for positive manipulation.
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Future animal health applications for bacteriophages

Gene products used as antibiotics alternatives show potential in fight against antimicrobial resistance.
Scientists believe that bacteriophage gene products could eventually be used to target bacterial pathogens, such as C. perfringens, in commercial livestock and poultry applications.
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Benefits of feeding fatty acids to sows

The addition of fatty acids to sow rations improves colostrum quality, piglet survival and performance
Trials show improvements in reproductive performance, colostrum immunoglobulin content and piglet immunity in sows fed rations including short- and medium- chain fatty acids.
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Reduced crude protein in pig diets cut nitrogen emissions

Utilizing a sustainable protein sources can have both economic and environmental benefits
Reducing dietary crude protein (CP) levels in finisher pig diets by 1 percent results in an 8 to 10 percent reduction in nitrogen excretion; however, it’s not the protein itself, but the amount, proportion and digestibility and availability of amino acids, which influence performance.
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Hen dietary considerations for improving egg quality

The amount of saleable egg produced per hen becomes even more important as cycle lengths increase along with a move toward cage free.
Egg quality declines naturally at the end of a laying cycle as egg size increases. Profitability of keeping hens longer requires nutritional support for egg quality. Diet formulation can influence the size and number of eggs laid. Calcium availability is key to shell strength but trace elements pay a key role in structural development.
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10 slow-growing broiler feeding tips

Nutritional specifications, diet regimen, feed intake and growth rates all need careful consideration by producers moving into this sector.
To ensure profitability in slow-growing broiler production, nutritionists should alter the nutrient density and the raw materials usage in their diets.
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Bacteriophages may offer antibiotic alternative for feed

Virus technology has the potential to provide an antibiotic alternative in livestock production while reducing pathogen contamination in human food.
As agriculture looks to reduce antibiotic use, bacteriophages could be used to prevent and treat bacterial infections in animals and humans.
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Cage free

8 considerations for cage-free laying hen nutrition

Egg producers must account for more than just housing when changing production practices
Beyond the housing investments, cage-free layers require alterations to their feeding programs. This article reviews eight considerations producers and nutritionists need to keep in mind.
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