News and analysis for the global poultry industry.

Essi Evans

Essi Evans, Ph.D., is president, Essi Evans Technical Advisory Services, Inc. in Ontario, Canada. She can be reached at



How to maximize microbial protein production by ruminants

Fermentation study offers opportunity to lessen the need for escape-protein supplements
A lot of emphasis is placed on escape protein and in establishing the escape protein values for various ingredients. But has the industry been overlooking the obvious solution? Generally, at least half of the metabolizable protein supplied to the cow for protein synthesis is from microbial protein, with the remainder of the requirement met with escape protein from ingredient sources.
Read more

How to deal with feed ingredient variability

Tips for analyzing, balancing the nutrient variations of byproducts and concentrates in ration formulations
The goal of feed formulation is to meet the nutritional needs of the target animal in the most profitable manner possible. This takes into account not only performance, but also optimization of efficiency and in some locations includes environmental nutrient management.
Read more

How to formulate better ruminant diets

Understanding that soluble protein does not equal degraded protein is essential for maximizing the positive effects of formulations.
The total protein in feed ingredients used for ruminants is partitioned between the rumen-degraded protein and rumen-undegraded protein. Values are often assigned to protein ingredients on the basis of the rumen-degraded protein that they yield. 
Read more

Body weight, dry matter intake key in improving cow feed formulation

Most likely your feed formulation software is working fine. However, sometimes the input needs a second look.
When expected results aren’t achieved from your cow feed formulation program, this generally indicates that either some aspect of feed preparation on the farm went awry, or one or more of the input parameters used to describe either the feed, farm or cows were off. When predictions go sideways, production of milk or components are unfortunately not where they should be.
Read more