How countries are addressing antimicrobial resistance

Global survey on tackling antimicrobial resistance reveals how well major poultry-producing countries are performing.

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Progression through the various levels has not necessarily been sequential. Over the surveyed period, some countries jumped, for example from Level 1 to 3, or 3 to 5, meaning that those countries with a lower ranking could soon be implementing more thorough plans.
Progression through the various levels has not necessarily been sequential. Over the surveyed period, some countries jumped, for example from Level 1 to 3, or 3 to 5, meaning that those countries with a lower ranking could soon be implementing more thorough plans.

How well major poultry-producing countries are responding to the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and taking steps to control its spread has been jointly revealed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in "Monitoring Global Progress on Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance – analysis report of the second round of results of AMR country self-assessment survey 2018."

The report presents the findings of the second self-assessment survey of the Global Action Plan on AMR and looks at progress in the human, animal, plant, food safety and environmental sectors. Out of 194 countries, 154 responded to the survey – a response rate of 79.4 percent.

While some major poultry-producing countries achieved the highest possible scores, the report’s authors note that, in almost all domains – surveillance, education, monitoring, consumption and use – in major chicken-, pork- and cattle-producing countries, more activity can be seen in the human sector than in the animal.

They continue that, despite progress, there is an urgent need for resource prioritization and more action in the animal and food sectors, and that only 64 countries have limited the use of critically important antimicrobials for growth promotion in agriculture.

Progress in poultry

For livestock production, the report includes five levels, with Level 1 being the lowest ranking, and Level 5 being the classification for the best performing major producing countries.

None of the world’s major poultry producers has been classed as Level 1, or having no AMR plan in action.

Level 2, which comprises those countries where an action plan is under development, has Brazil as its sole entry, while Mexico is the sole entry under Level 3, i.e. a country where a national AMR plan has been developed.

Level 4, which is defined as having a national AMR action plan in place approved by the government that reflects global action plan objectives, with an operational plan and monitoring arrangements, includes Argentina, India, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Russian Federation.

Level 5 comprises countries where a national AMR action plan has funding sources identified, is being implemented and has relevant sectors involved with a defined monitoring and evaluation process in place, and includes China, Japan the U.S.

Need for cross-sector approach

The establishment of multi-sectorial working groups was identified in the Global Action Plan on AMR as an important facilitator of a One Health Approach to addressing AMR.

Broad cross-sector engagement in co-ordination groups is associated with greater implementation across all sectors, and 50 percent of the survey’s respondents has such multi-sectorial working groups.

However, the survey also found that not all of these groups are functioning and, when added to those countries that are yet to establish a cross-sectorial group, substantial progress is still needed to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, despite limited action many countries, the number of countries with functioning multi-sectorial working groups has nearly doubled since 2016 and, where they exist, they typically include representatives from human health, animal health and food safety.

Lack of legislative restriction

Substantial room for improvement still exists where regulating the use of antimicrobials in non-human sectors is concerned.

One hundred twenty-three countries have policies requiring a prescription for antibiotic use in humans, while 64 have limited the use of antibiotics for growth promotion in agriculture.

From the point of view of regulatory oversight of the supply chain and market approval, nearly one-fifth of countries have no national policy or legislation regarding the quality, safety and efficacy of antimicrobial products and their distribution, sale or use, and another 28 countries were unable to report whether they had policies in place.

The need for progress is buoyed by ongoing concerns about the quality of antimicrobials, the rise of substandard and falsified medicines globally, and the impact of consuming these substandard or falsified products on animal and human health.

Of the 64 countries that have limited the use of critically important antimicrobials for growth promotion in animal production, 33 are in the WHO’s Europe region, three are in the Africa region and seven in the Americas region

Training in AMR in the veterinary sector is “less than common,” the survey found. Globally, 30.5 percent of countries have no AMR training for veterinary professionals. Fewer than 20 percent of countries in all regions, with the exception of Europe, have progressed past the point of implementing a plan to strengthen capacity gaps in veterinary services.

Welcoming the publication of the report, Dr. Monique Eloit, OIE director general, called for more human and financial resources to help countries ensure responsible and prudent use of antimicrobials and allow them to set up a surveillance system and monitor progress.

“Strong and long-term engagement of all actors in the antimicrobial use chain is also needed to uphold best practices and regulations, from policy makers to veterinarians and farmers, including industrial retailers, feed producers and pharmaceutical producers,” she said.

Poultry Veterinarian 2

Almost one-third of countries around the world have no AMR training for veterinary professionals. | sylv1rob1, Bigstock.com

 

Antibiotic-free poultry production alone of little benefit

www.WATTAgNet.com/blogs/23-poultry-around-the-world/post/30385

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