Control nitrogen excretion as first step in ‘green’ feeding: List of references

The list of references used by Drs N.S. and V.N. Muley in their article in the January 2008 issue of Poultry International.

  • Anderson D.P., C.W. Beard & R.P. Hanson, 1964. The adverse effects of ammonia on chickens including resistance to infection with Newcastle disease virus. Avian Diseases, 8: 369-379. 
  • Austic R.E., 1994. Update on amino acid requirements and ratios for broilers. Proceedings of Maryland Nutrition Conference, 114-130. 
  • Baize J., 2000. Global soybean meal sampling and analysis activity (Final report). Submitted to the American Soybean Association and the United Soybean Board. John C. Baize and Associates. 
  • Baker D.H. 1996. Advances in amino acid nutrition and metabolism of swine and poultry. Nutrient Management of Food Animals to enhance and protect the environment. Edited by E.T. Kornegay. Lewis Publishers, New York, 41-53. 
  • Baker D.H., C.M. Parsons, S. Fernández, S. Aoyagi & Y. Han, 1993. Digestible amino acid requirements of broiler chicks based upon ideal protein considerations. Proceedings of Arkansas Nutrition Conference, 22-32. 
  • Baker D.H., A.B. Batal, T.M. Parr, N.R. Augspurger & C.M. Parsons, 2002. Ideal ratio (relative to lysine) of tryptophan, threonine, isoleucine and valine for chicks during the second and third weeks posthatch. Poultry Science, 81: 485-494. 
  • Batal A.B., M.W. Douglas, A.E. Engram & C.M. Parsons, 2000. Protein dispersibility index as an indicator of adequately processed soybean meal. Poultry Science, 79:1592-1596. 
  • Blair R., J.P. Jacob, S. Ibrahim & P. Wang, 1999. A quantitative assessment of reduced protein diets and supplements to improve nitrogen utilization. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8: 25-47. 
  • Bregendahl K., J.L. Sell & D.R. Zimmerman, 2002. Effect of low-protein diets on growth performance and body composition of broiler chicks.  Poultry Science, 81: 1156-1167. 
  • Deaton J.W., F.N. Reece & B.D. Lott, 1984. Effect of atmospheric ammonia on pullets at point of lay. Poultry Science, 63: 384-385. 
  • Dutch Bureau of Livestock Feeding, 1996. Amino acid requirement of laying hens and broiler chicks. Edited by J.B. Schutte. CVB Report no. 18. 
  • Feedstuff reference issue and buyers guide. 1999. Feedstuff Ingredient Analysis Table: 1999. 
  • Ferguson N.S., R.S. Gates, J.L. Taraba, A.H. Cantor, A.J. Pescatore, M.J. Ford, & D.J. Burnham, 1998. The effect of dietary crude protein on growth, ammonia concentration, and litter composition in broilers. Poultry Science, 77: 1481-1487. 
  • Graham K.K., M.S. Kerley, J.D. Firman & G.L. Allee, 2002. The effect of enzyme treatment of soybean meal on oligosaccharide disappearance and chick growth performance. Poultry Science, 81:1014-1019. 
  • Grieshop C.M., A.B. Batal, D.H. Baker, C.M. Parsons & G.C. Fahey, Jr., 2001. Variation in international soybean meal quality. Journal of Animal Science, 79 (Suppl. 2.): 40. 
  • Han Y., H. Suzuki, C.M. Parsons & D.H. Baker, 1992. Amino acid fortification of low-protein corn and soybean meal diet for chicks. Poultry Science, 71:1168-1178. 
  • Holsheimer J.P. & W.M.M.A. Janssen, 1991. Limiting amino acids in low protein maize-soyabean meal diets fed to broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. British Poultry Science, 32: 151-158. 
  • Kerr B.J. & M.T. Kidd, 1999. Amino acid supplementation of low-protein broiler diets: 1. Glutamic acid and indispensable amino acid supplementation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8: 298-309. 
  • Kerr, B.J. & M.T. Kidd, 1999. Amino acid supplementation of low-protein broiler diets: 2. Formulation on an ideal amino acid basis. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 8: 310-320. 
  • Kidd M.T., B.J. Kerr, J.D. Firman & S.D. Boling, 1996. Growth and carcass characteristics of broilers fed low-protein, threonine-supplemented diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5: 180-190. 
  • Leeson S., J.D. Summers & L.J. Caston. 2000. Net energy to improve pullet growth with low protein amino acid-fortified diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 9: 384-392. 
  • Liu Z., G. Wu, M.M. Bryant & D.A. Roland, Sr., 2005. Influence of added synthetic lysine in low-protein diets with the methionine plus cysteine to lysine ratio maintained at 0.75. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 14: 174-182. 
  • Mack S., D. Bercovici, G. De Groote, B. Leclercq, M. Lippens, M. Pack, J. B. Schutte & S. Van Cauwenberghe, 1999. Ideal amino acid profile and dietary lysine specification for broiler chickens of 20 to 40 days of age. British Poultry Science, 40: 257-265. 
  • MacRae R., 1990. Sustainable agriculture: Meaning and its relation to present day methods with implications for the fertilizer trade. Atlantic Plant Food Education Seminar, Fredericton, N.B., 28: 43-55. 
  • Moran E.T. Jr., R.D. Bushow & S. F. Bilgili. 1992. Reducing dietary protein for broilers while satisfying amino acid requirements by least-cost formulation: Live performance, litter composition and yield of fast-food carcass cuts at six weeks. Poultry Science, 71: 1687-1694. 
  • Moran E.T. Jr. & H.L Stilborn, 1996. Effect of glutamic acid on broilers given submarginal crude protein with adequate essential amino acids using feeds high and low in potassium. Poultry Science, 75: 120-129. 
  • Morse D. 1995. Environmental considerations of livestock producers.  Journal of Animal Science, 73: 2733-2740. 
  • National Research Council (1994). Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th edition. National Academy of Sciences., Washington.  
  • Patterson P.H. & E.S. Lorenz, 1996. Manure nutrient production from commercial White Leghorn hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5: 260-268. 
  • Patterson P.H. & E.S. Lorenz, 1997. Manure nutrient production from commercial White Leghorn pullets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 6: 247-252. 
  • Patterson P.H., E.S. Lorenz, W.D. Weaver & J. H. Schwartz Jr., 1998. Litter production and nutrients from commercial broiler chickens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 7: 247-252. 
  • Si J, C.A. Fritts, P.W. Waldroup & D.J. Burnham. 2004. Effects of excess methionine from meeting needs for total sulfur amino acids on utilization of diets low in crude protein by broiler chicks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13: 579-587. 
  • Steinfeld H., P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales & C. de Haan, 2006. Livestock's long shadow. Environmental issues and options. Accessed at  
  • Van Kempen T.A.T.G. & P.H. Simmins, 1997. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in precision feed formulation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 6: 471-477. 
  • Wang S., 2006. Managing corn variability. Asian Poultry, May 2006, 38. 
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